Optical fiber connectors are general-purpose passive components. For the same type of optical fiber connectors, they can generally be used in any combination and can be used repeatedly. The additional loss introduced by this is generally within the range of less than 0.2dB.
According to the cross-section of the optical fiber, the Optical fiber connectors can be divided into APC, UPC, PC. According to the structure, the types of fiber connectors are FC, SC, ST, LC, MT-RJ, MPO/MTO, BFOC, DIN, FDDI, MU, Biconic, SMA, D4, E2000, OPTI-JAKC, VF-45, LX-5.
First of all, fiber cross sections includes PC, APC, and UPC. Let’s understand the difference between PC, UPC, and APC.
The cross sections of PC and UPC are flat, and the cross section of APC has an 8 degree bevel
PC refers to physical contact, and UPC refers to ultra physical contact. Because the end faces of PC and UPC are flat, the mixed connection of PC and UPC will not cause permanent physical damage to the connector.
APC is completely different. Its end face has an 8-degree bevel, and the APC connector can only be connected to the APC. The method of connecting APC to PC: through the optical fiber jumper converted from PC to APC
Next, we introduce, fibre connection types by structure
1. FC Fiber Connectors
FC means Ferrule Connector, with a metal connector, generally used on the ODF side
2. SC Fiber Connectors
SC connector has square connector, rectangular shell, made of engineering plastics, has the advantages of low price, simple operation, small insertion loss, high compressive strength, high temperature resistance, and not easy to oxidize.
Commonly used in optical fiber distribution frames, the shell is round, and the fixing method is a screw buckle
For 10Base-F connections, the connector is usually ST type, and for 100Base-FX, the connector is mostly SC type. The core of the ST connector is exposed, and the core of the SC connector is inside the connector.
The size of this connector is half the size of SC, FC, etc., which is 1.25mm. This can increase the density of optical fiber connectors in the optical fiber distribution frame.5. MT-RJ Fiber Connectors
Optical fiber on the end face of MT-RJ connector is dual core (0.75mm interval)6. MPO/MTP Fiber Connectors
MPO/MTP connector supports more than 2 cores of optical fibers in one connector. Currently, 12-core MPO/MTP connectors are commonly used. MTP connectors are an upgraded version of MPO connectors, with better transmission performance and lower loss, higher fineness. MPO/MTP connectors cannot be field connection.7. BFOC Fiber Connectors
The appearance of BFOC connector is very similar to the ST connector, and the buckle method is exactly the same, but the core is slightly shorter than the ST connector. It is generally used in industrial Ethernet network equipment8. DIN Fiber Connectors
The structure and size of this connector are the same as the FC connector, with PC end face. Compared with the FC connector, the structure is more complicated, and the mechanical precision is higher, so the loss value is smaller.9. FDDI Fiber Connectors (Fiber Distributed Data Interface Connector)
FDDI connector is mainly used in duplex fiber optic systems.10. MU Fiber Connectors
The MU connector is developed on the basis of the SC type connector and is the smallest single-core fiber optic connector in the world. The connector uses a 1.25mm diameter sleeve. With the wide application of WDM technology, the demand for MU connectors will also grow rapidly.11. Biconic Fiber Connectors
Consists of two conical barrel plugs and a biconical plastic sleeve assembly. currently obsolete12. SMA Fiber Connectors
SMA connectors are generally used in test equipment, data network, medical equipment, etc. SMA connectors’ ferrules have two different materials, ceramic and metal.13. D4 Fiber Connectors
The D4 connector’s loss is small, and the pin diameter is 2.0mm. The body of the D4 connector is nickel-plated brass material and is available in a variety of colors.14. E2000 Fiber Connectors
E2000 connector is easy to install and mainly used for single-mode optical fiber, with a dust cover. The material of shell is plastic.
15. OPTI-JAKC Fiber Connectors
OPTI-JACK connector is a SF(Small Form Factor) fiber optic connector.16. VF-45 Fiber Connectors
VF-45 fiber optic connector is also called SG connector, which can be used for connection without ferrule.
17. LX-5 Fiber Connectors
The LX-5 is a SFF ( Small Form Factor) fiber optic connector, designed to meet the needs of the cable television industry.
In the label indicating the optical fiber pigtail connector, we often see "FC/PC", "SC/PC", etc., and their meanings are as follows:
The part in front of "/" indicates the connector model of the optical fiber pigtail
The back of "/" indicates the cross-section process of the optical fiber connector
"SC" indicates that the type of optical fiber pigtail connector is SC connector, "PC" indicates the cross-section process of optical fiber connector